• Perimeter: outer layer of object being printed. It also defines the edges, and it is what in actual contact with the outside environment. 

  • Infill: it is the non-visible material surrounded by the perimeter. Also responsible for the rigidness of the object. 

Infill density: percentage density of the infill inside the object. A higher infill density will result in a more solid object. 


  • Layer: when the 3D object is sliced, several layers are created, one on top of the other. Each layer is printed by each pass of the extruder on the area. 

Layer thicknessheight of material being deposited on top of one another. Smaller layer thickness will result in better looking objects, but with more extruded material and increased print time. 


  • Nozzle: end of the syringe, it is adjusted for each type of syringe and material being extruded. 

Nozzle diameter: influences the amount of material being extruded, and the pressure needed to extrude it. Plastic nozzles are used for most inks, except for (generally) heated inks. 

  • Inks: material that is extruded from the bioprinter. Different inks are made from different components which make them suitable for each type of tissue. 

  • Printheadsthey connect directly to the printbox. There are different types printheads which give extra functionality to the bioprinter. Some of these include: Syringe pump printhead, HD camera printhead, Cooled printhead, Thermoplastic printhead, Inkjet printhead, etc. 

  • Print speedsets the speed at which the printhead moves, must be adjusted with the pressure and material that is being extruded. 

  • Pressure: sets the pressure at which the material is going to be extruded. Higher pressures increase the amount of material being extruded. 

  • Support material: material that is added to the main file in order to maintain itsshape until the material has crosslinked. 

  • Z calibration: sets the distance variation between the printbed and the tip of the nozzle. It is recommended that the nozzle is barely touching the petri dish, or surface being printed on for best results. 

  • Printbox: module containing the printheads. Responsible for providing pressure and movement to the printheads. 

  • HeartOS: Operating System of the BIO X bioprinter. 

  • Slic3r: software used to convert and adjust the printing parameters of CAD files. 

  • HeartWare: MAC or PC software used to control the Inkredible(+) or BIO X and adjust printing files. 

  • Photo curable: material which is curable by exposing it to a certain UV wavelength. 

  • Crosslink: the creation of bonds between chains of a polymer. These can be chemical through covalent/ionic bonds, or physical through aggregation of polymer chains. 

  • Cartridge 

  • Piston/Plungersyringe component that is inserted in order to generate a pressure and make the material extrude. 

  • ABL: (Automatic Bed Levelling) feature in the BIO X bioprinter which calibrates the print bed levelling in comparison to the extrusion nozzles. 

  • Endstopsensor that lets the machine know it has reached an ending point in the X, Y, or Z axis. 

  • Filament/Strandfine amount of material that has been extruded from the nozzle. 

  • Homingcalibration of the X and Y axis. Makes the bioprinter recognize where it is in space. 

  • STL: type of complete 3D file recognized by HeartWare (must be sliced for theInkredible(+))and the BIO X for printing. Allows for adjustments and edits. 

  • G-Code: type of file recognizes by the Bioprinter with specific commands as to how to print the file. Does not allow for modifications, unless it is directly by modifying the code. 

  • Model3D representation of an object or structure. 

  • ASCII/Binary STL: types of exported .stl files supported by the BIO X bioprinter (ASCII after HeartOS V1.5). 

  • Hydrogel: polymer gel that can crosslink under certain conditions. 



  • Thermoplastic: often a plastic polymer which softens at high temperatures and hardens when cooled. The thermoplastic most often used in bioprinting is PCL. 

  • Offset 

Offset variations